Black American History Month

On This Date In American History as it Relates to the American Revolution

It seems only fitting that on this the last day of February, we acknowledge and give homage to Black American History Month. In addition, this seemed the appropriate date to honor Black Americans because on February 28, 1778,  Rhode Island General Assembly authorized the enlistment of slaves.

Black American Revolution

Black American Revolution

From even before the first shots on Lexington Green, African Americans had a role in America’s fight for independence. Among the dead at the Boston Massacre was an African American by the name of Crispus Attucks. On April 19, 1775, African Americans were among the Minutemen who defended the stores of ammunition that the colonists accumulated in Concord and Lexington, Massachusetts. In the early months of the war, concern among whites over the arming of free African Americans and slaves increased. Recognizing the need for manpower against superior British forces, General George Washington authorized the enlistment of free African Americans on December 30, 1775. In turn, Congress relented and allowed the re-enlistment of those free men who had served their country at the beginning of the war.

For slaves seeking freedom in return for military service, life in the army was a step up in society. For free African Americans, service was looked upon as a way to increase their community standing and earn cash and land bounties. Desertion rates among African Americans were lower than among other ethnic groups. By 1777, whites and African Americans served side-by-side in the Continental Army. But not all African Americans fought on the side for independence; some fought for the British.

While numerous soldiers captured by the British Army suffered and died in the holds of prison ships, many white soldiers were exchanged for captured British soldiers. However, African American soldiers were rarely exchanged for British prisoners of war, and many of the African Americans were sold into slavery in the West Indies.

According to Thomas Fleming in Washington’s Secret War: The Hidden History of Valley Forge, the Valley Forge encampment included many African Americans. The First Rhode Island Regiment, in General James Varnum’s Brigade, consisted largely of African American and Native American soldiers. According to pension records and other source documents, at least five hundred African Americans were at Valley Forge. They include Shadrack Battles, a 32-year-old “free man of color” who enlisted in the Tenth Virginia Regiment in December 1779, and Windsor Fry, another free black man who served with the First Rhode Island Regiment. Salem Poor of Massachusetts, who purchased his freedom, came to Valley Forge after distinguished service at Bunker Hill and Saratoga. African Americans at Valley Forge included slaves serving as substitutes for their masters; one of these was Samual Surphen in the New Jersey Brigade. A belated hats off to the African Americans who fought for America’s Independence from Great Britain.

The End of Another Week, The End of the Month

Can you believe that another week has come and gone? Can you believe that it is the end of the month as well? It has certainly been a busy one for me. In addition to writing this blog, I have written a hub on hubpages every day this week since Monday. Below are the links to the hubs I have written.

Monday I wrote

The Sustainability of an Apple Tree

apples in treeTuesday I wrote

              A Continuous Supply of Radishes

radishes

Wednesday I wrote:

Growing Beets in the Garden

beetsThursday I wrote:

Plant Swiss Chard, A Hardy Summer Green

Swiss_chard

Friday I Wrote:

Growing Broccoli, A Garden Favorite

broccoli

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Do you know about the First Revolutionary War Commander and Chief of the Continental Navy?

I spent 6 years Active Duty Navy and 10 years in the reserves, and I don’t remember ever hearing about this man.

On February 26, 1802, Esek Hopkins, an American Revolutionary War Admiral and commander and chief of the Continental Navy died. He had been born in Rhode Island on April 26, 1718. He began his sea career captaining merchant ships. During the French and Indian War, he became a successful privateer. A privateer was an entrepreneur of the high seas who claimed the enemy’s merchant goods. In other words, he was a pirate.

Esek Hopkins

Esek Hopkins

In 1775, at the beginning of the American Revolution, Rhode Island appointed Hopkins as commander of its military forces. Later that year he was promoted to Commander in Chief of the  Continental Navy. In mid-February of the following year under orders from the Continental congress, Commodore Hopkins disembarked from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to attack British maritime forces in the Chesapeake Bay and  along coast off Rhode Island.

Hopkins knew that would have been a suicide mission, so instead undertook the Navy’s first amphibious offensive. On 3 March, his squadron landed party ashore on New Providence Island, in the Bahamas and seized the local defensive works and captured equipment and supplies which would be used by the continental military. On 4 April 1776. On the way back home, Hopkins encountered and captured two small British warships. Two days later they  engaged HMS Glasgow but without consequence. They returned to New London, Connecticut on April eighth.

Hopkins was censured by congress, but he continued to be in charge of the American Navy for another year, but was dismissed from service early in 1778. However, with his men and with Rhode Islanders he stayed popular. He served in that State’s legislature through most of the next decade and was active in Rhode Island politics until he died February  26, 1802. RIP Admiral Hopkins.

We Must Decide What We Want and Go for It!

This Day in the American Revolution

The Fall of Fort Vincennes (also known as Fort Sackville)

The Fall of Fort Vincennes (also known as Fort Sackville)

George Rogers Clark captured Fort Vincennes (Vincennes, Indiana) from British on February 24, 1779 from British Governor Henry Hamilton. On February twenty-third, the Americans surrounded the fort manned by 90 British soldiers. The patriots were outnumbered, but tricked the British and their Indian allies by dividing their own army into groups of ten so that it appeared that they had more than a thousand surrounding the fort. The Indians, in fear of capture, deserted the British to defend the fort themselves. Clark’s army took the fort without a single casualty. With the capture of the fort, the British army was removed from the Illinois territory, and the Native American tribes stopped attacking settlements in nearby Kentucky.

It is amazing what can happen in one short year. Just twelve months earlier, the main American force had trudged into Valley Forge a ragged, downtrodden lot. By the following April, the American’s were given a shot in the arm when the French sided with the Americans in the war and this turned things around. The following winter, Americans were back on track and this time had the British on the run.

Determining What We Really Want

Just as most of the Americans prior to the army’s winter at Valley Forge were waffling between whether they really wanted to remain independent from Great Britain or whether they wanted to give up and return to colonialism. I think we all have those moments. Sometimes we give up on the dreams that we had because they seemed too hard. Sometimes we press through. That was what happened for the Americans during 1778. They solidified their stance and when George Rogers Clark and his men surrounded Fort Vincennes, they were determined to raise the American flag above that fort. They had determined what they wanted and they were going after it.

As I read this, I think about the fact that I too have been waffling about what I want and what I want to do in certain areas of my life. For instance, in a few months I will be finishing my liberal arts degree, and I will need to begin working full time. In addition, I have been waffling about creating more healthful habits. During past few weeks I have been beginning to change a few of my habits, but as far as I can tell, I am still like the men who were training at Valley Forge. This past weekend I came to my own crossroads. Like the Americans who limped into Valley Forge, I have faced defeat after defeat. I felt as though nothing seems to have gone my way. The problem with me was that it is time that I determine what path that I will take. Will I be defeated, or will I become successful.

I have been waffling about what I want to do with this blog, and I think that I have finally figured out what I want to do with it. I am going to continue the history lessons, but I am going to develop other topics on this blog as well. . I’m going to focus more creating a healthy life style. I am going to talk about developing not only a healthier lifestyle, but a more sustainable lifestyle as well. I’ll explain more about my plans on Wednesday.

Over this past weekend, I wrote a short booklet called: Vegetable Gardening in the Shade. I will to be starting a newsletter called: The Cygnet Brown Newsletter. Please feel free to sign up and get Vegetable Gardening in the Shade and join the newsletter.

Pining For Spring

This winter has been a very hard, cold, snowy winter for many of us who live in the Midwest, Southeast, and Northeast. The polar vortex has taken a trip south for the winter so that snow in some areas can be measured in yards rather than inches. Places that usually get snow in the form of lake effect snow, haven’t been getting the snow the usually get because the Great Lakes are frozen over. Europe has been affected by unprecedented flooding, the US west coast in contrast has been suffering a drought.

Food prices, especially meat prices, have gone through the roof. Beef and pork prices have quadrupled. The price of propane has also quadrupled. If the drought along the west coast continues, the price of fruits and vegetables will also rise.

For the first time in years I personally have cabin fever. I have been sitting inside my home day after day wishing that the weather here in Springfield, MO would improve so that I could get outside. I have been pining for spring. Rather than sitting here, simply pining, I have determined that I am going to do something positive about this situation. I have been working on my first nonfiction book, a gardening book which I call: Simply Vegetable Gardening. I am on a mission of sorts. I want to help as many people as possible start their own backyard vegetable gardens to help them off-set the cost of their food. I want to help everyone who has a small outdoor space to grow their own vegetable garden. Even if their gardens are on the shady side, no one needs to be completely dependent on the global food system. To give an idea of what this book will contain, here are a couple of hubs that I have written on Hubpages.

Hot Peppers in the Garden

hot peppers

Get an Ample Supply of Lettuce from Your Garden this Season

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The past couple of days have been better than the previous past two months, but the reprieve from the winter weather has been short lived. This weekend our temperatures will be below normal again and will remain that way until well into next month. So I have enjoyed the past couple of days, and with cooler temperatures returning, I will continue pining after spring by readying  the book Simply Vegetable Gardening. Perhaps it will be ready when gardening season returns.

When did Ohio Actually become a US State?

OHIO

OHIO

I have been having difficulty coming up with events that relate to the American Revolution this time of the year, but in my research I found this interesting controversy related to Ohio. On February 19, 1803, Congress accepted Ohio’s constitution, but statehood not ratified till 1953. How did that happen?

Unlike Vermont and Tennessee, whose State government already in existence was simply recognized by Congress via what we now refer to as Acts of Admission and unlike Kentucky, which was authorized to form a State government which would thereafter take effect on a date specified by what we now refer to as that State’s Enabling Act. Ohio was voted on by Congress to be allowed into the US as a state in the last session of April 1802, but then  State of Ohio was drafted and adopted by convention on 29 November 1802, said Constitution calling for elections in January for a Governor and a legislature styled the General Assembly to convene at the then-Territorial capital of Chillicothe (the territorial/state capital at the time) on  March 1, 1803).

In the meantime, Congress passed- on 19 February 1803- what was officially titled ‘An Act to provide for the due execution of the laws of the United States within the State of Ohio’ which, among other things, expressly observed that “the people… did… form for themselves a constitution and State government in pursuance of whereby the said State has become one of the United States of America”.

clown girl

Louisiana, the next state admitted to the union, was required to submit its State Constitution to Congressional for scrutiny before being allowed entry into the United States. The State of Louisiana had a much different background than the states that had joined the union thus far. Its primary religion was Catholic and rather than English roots, it had French and Spanish roots. Also, it was the only State at the time divided into parishes rather than counties. Therefore, Congress felt that it was important to make certain that Louisiana’s constitution was compatible with the rest of the country.

Ohio had, however, been immediately accepted as the 17th State of the Union without any debate. As Ohio prepared to celebrate its Sesquecentennial in the early 1950s, the way that  Ohio was admitted into the union became an issue. When the events organizers went to look for the official document stating that Ohio had been admitted to the union, there was none.

Republican Congressman George Bender was concerned enough to introduce a bill on the floor of the House on January 19, 1953 that would retroactively admit Ohio to the Union as of March 1, 1803 which was the date the Ohio General Assembly first convened, thus formally instituting State government in the State. This proposal allayed any fears regarding  Ohio’s legitimate statehood status and also officially declare a specific date as the date Ohio became a State.  The House passed it  on May 19  and the Senate followed suit on August 1,   President Eisenhower signed it into law on August 7, 1953. This date fell on the anniversary of the Northwest Territory Act of 1789  (which Ohio was a part along with Indiana and Illinois).

Some individuals even today question the legitimacy of Ohio’s ratification of amendments to the constitution because this official ratification did not occur until 1953. However, if one goes back to the timing and wording of the original documentation in congress, this act of congress was unnecessary. In addition, because President Eisenhower signed this law into effect making it retroactive to 1803, the question of Ohio’s original date of statehood therefore becomes a doubly moot point.

Last week I promised you an announcement this week. Today I would like to announce that I will soon be publishing my first nonfiction book: Simply Vegetable Gardening. Declare your independence from high food costs by beginning your own vegetable garden in your own back yard this year. More information about this book during the next several weeks.

Happy President’s Day

On February 17, 1776, the first volume of Gibbon’s “Decline & Fall of Roman Empire” was published. A few months later on July 4, 1776, a new empire was born which was to become known as the United States. This new empire didn’t seem to have a mother, but it did have fathers. Founding fathers, that is. Among these founding fathers were five men who eventually became the first five presidents of the United States.

George Washington-The First President of the United States

George Washington-The First President of the United States

Back in the 1880s, when the birthday of Washington—commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution as well as the first American Preside—was first celebrated as a national holiday. In 1968, Congress passed the Uniform Monday Holiday Bill, which moved several national holidays to Mondays. This change was designed to schedule certain holidays which enabled the labor force to have more long weekends throughout the year, but it has been opposed by those who believe that those holidays should be celebrated on the dates they commemorated. During Congressional debate, someone proposed that Washington’s Birthday be renamed Presidents’ Day in honor of all presidents.

At first, Congress rejected the name change, but when the bill went into effect in 1971, Presidents’ Day had became the commonly accepted name. Retailers had picked up on the name and it stuck.  This holiday on the third Monday of February is marked by public ceremonies throughout the country.

John Adams-The Second President of the United States

John Adams-The Second President of the United States

The second President of the United States was John Adams. Although he rose in popularity due to his opposition to the Stamp Act of  1765, he didn’t believe in violence and against popular opinion he had defended in court the soldiers tried for their participation in what we Americans now call the Boston Massacre of March 5, 1770.

He became one of the men assigned to help draft the Declaration of Independence in 1776. In 1785 he became the first US minister to England. He became the first US Vice President and served from 1789-1796. He became the second President of the United States and served from 1796-1800. Thomas Jefferson

Another founding father became the third president of the United States was Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson, a plantation owner from Virginia was the author of the Declaration of Independent.  After writing the Declaration of Independence, served from 1776-1779 in the  Virginia House of Delegates.After which he was elected Virginia’s second governor. After the death of his wife in 1785, he became the second US minister to France. He returned to America in 1789 and became the first US Secretary of State under the new Constitution. In 1797 he became the Vice President under John Adams and in 1800 he was elected President of the United States. In 1803 his most significant accomplishment as president was the Louisiana Purchase which nearly doubled the size of the country. After his presidency ended in 1809, he returned to his plantation where he died on July 4, 1826, (the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence)  just a few hours after John Adams died.

The fourth president of the United States was James Madison. He wrote the first drafts of the US Constitution, in 1787,  co-wrote the Federalist Papers in 1788 and sponsored the Bill of Rights in 1789. In 1800 he helped President Thomas Jefferson establish the Democrat-Republican Party. He became the fourth President of the United States in 1808. James Madison

James Madison wrote the first drafts of the U.S. Constitution, co-wrote the Federalist Papers and sponsored the Bill of Rights. He established the Democrat-Republican Party with President Thomas Jefferson, and became president himself in 1808. Madison initiated the War of 1812, because US merchant ships where preyed upon by pirates and England and France were seizing US ships and crew. This first US declared war ended in 1815 after the Battle of New Orleans commanded by Andrew Jackson. After Madison’s second term ended, he retired from politics to his Montpelier estate in Virginia where he died on June 28, 1836.

The fifth President of the United States, James Monroe was the last of President who was a founding father. He fought in the American Revolution where he was wounded during the Battle of Trenton. James MonroeHe studied under Thomas Jefferson from 1780-1783 and served as a delegate in the Continental Congress. He was an anti-federalist delegate to the Virginia convention assigned to consider the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. He was elected to the United States Senate in 1790 and helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. He was the Secretary of State and the Secretary of War during the War of 1812. He became President of the United States in 1816. He drew a line in the sand against European intervention against the independent countries in the Americans with his Monroe Doctrine in 1823. He died was the third one to die on Independence day. He died on July 4, 1831 in New York.

Happy Valentine’s Day!

If you haven’t gotten your sweetheart a Valentine’s gift yet, you still have time. Men all around the country are calling florists or stopping by their sweetheart’s favorite candy or jewelry store to pick up evidence to the one they love that they do not deserve to spend the night on the couch. valentines-chocolate

Last night I was watching a rerun of the television show The Big Bang Theory and Dr. Sheldon Cooper said that he could not understand how the execution of a monk named Valentine could have lead to the holiday that we now celebrate on February 14th. For all the Sheldons out there, I researched the story. Today, Valentine’s Day is a day when we celebrate love and romance by giving flowers, cupids  and candy to our sweethearts, however, the origins of this holiday are not so romantic.

A drawing depicts the death of St. Valentine — one of them, anyway. The Romans executed two men by that name on Feb. 14 of different years in the 3rd century A.D.

The celebration dates back to ancient Rome when men “hitting on women” was not a euphemism, but was a literal practice. It began as a three-day celebration, February 13-15 when the Romans celebrated the Feast of Lupercalia. Men sacrificed a goat and a dog then whipped women with the hides of the goat and the dog. The women actually lined up for the men to hit them because they believed that the practice would make them fertile. Afterwards, the men drew women’s names from a clay pot. The pair would be mated for the remainder of the festival and if the man liked the woman, he would claim her permanently. On February 14, Emperor Claudius II executed two men named Valentine. The Catholic church honored their martyrdom with St. Valentine’s Day. In order to rid the Christian society of pagan rituals, around 400 AD, Pope Gelasius I combined St. Valentine’s Day with Lupercalia. At that time however, the festival was more like Marti Gras  except people kept their clothes on. Until they got home anyway. It was still, after all, a day of fertility and love.

During the same time, in France, the Normans celebrated Galatin’s Day which meant the “lover of women”.  Tokens-du-jour, the first Valentine’s Day cards became popular during the Middle Ages. Chaucer and William Shakespeare helped popularize Valentine’s Day in Britain and Europe.

A Vintage Valentine's Day Card

A Vintage Valentine’s Day Card

Valentine’s Day followed the immigrants over the big pond to the New World. In 1913, Hallmark Cards of Kansas City, Missouri produced the first factory-made valentines. Valentine’s Day is now big business. Last year, the average American spent $130.97 on candy, cards, and gifts. This year, according to the National Retail Federation,The average person will spend $133.91 on candy, cards, gifts, dinner and more.  They expect total spending to reach $17.3 billion. That’s a lot of money spent on a holiday that once involved sacrificing dogs and goats and men named Valentine.

I hope you don’t mind that I went off the track of writing history related to the American Revolution. During the winter months, not much went on militarily and so it makes it difficult to find history to write about during this time of the year.

I wrote two more hubs on Hubpages to share. Simply click on the links to check them out.

Sweet Homegrown Carrots

Plant Sweet Peppers with Basil

Also, I hope you had a good week. I know the east coast has been hit by a massive storm that left almost a half a million people without power or heat. My prayers are with them. I hope the weekend is better for them than the week has been. Here in the Midwest, we are heading into a warming trend, I hope that means that spring is on the way. I have a special surprise to share on Monday. I hope to see you then.

Why Are Some People Famous? (February 12)

Did you ever wonder what it is that makes a person famous? Are we born to be famous? Are we some how gifted at birth with the skills necessary to be successful?

This Day in History

Lincoln Memorial

Today in 1809,  Abraham Lincoln was born in Hodgenville, Kentucky. He grew up living a poor pioneer life in Kentucky and Indiana. He only had one year of formal education, but taught himself to read and the law. As an adult he lived in Illinois and had many jobs including postmaster, surveyor and shop keeping. He was physically strong and was a legendary in Illinois for his wrestling skills, and he became known far and wide for his ability to entertain everyone with his folksy wit.  He then went into politics. He served in as a representative in Illnois from 1834-1836 and after that he became a lawyer. He married Mary Todd in 1842. They had four sons.

Abe Lincoln returned to politics in the 1850s when the issue of slavery was coming to a head. Licoln didn’t advocate abolition, but advocated restricting of slavery to the states where slavery already existed. During a the race for the  Illinois Senate in 1858, he warned his famous statement “a house divided against itself cannot stand”. He lost the Senate seat, but received national recognition because of his run for office.

In 1860, as a presidential candidate, Lincoln attempted to reassure slaveholders that he had no intention of ending slavery where it existed and preferred maintaining the union rather than freeing slaves. He carried the presidency by about 400 thousand popular votes and won the votes in the Electoral College.He was six foot, four inches tall, making him the tallest president.

He failed to keep South Carolina and the other southern states from seceding. By February 1, 1861 South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas had seceded. After the Civil War started, the remaining confederate states left as well. In 1863, Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This document freed the slaves in the states of the confederacy, but did not prevent slave owners in Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska or Arkansas from owning slaves.

His self-effacing sense of humor helped him during the depressing times of the Civil War. He admitted that he suffered depression throughout most of his adult life. During his Senate race debate his opponent called him two faced to which he replied. “If I had another face do you think I would wear this one?”

Even though his early views concerning slavery were considered wishy-washy, he has become known as The Great Emancipator. His greatest accomplishments were his dedication to preserving the union and signing the Emancipation Proclamation. This second act was the fuel to the fire that prompted John Wilkes Booth to assassinate him on April 14, 1865.

Abe Lincoln had neither wealth, education, or an especially optimistic outlook on life and yet he managed to do what most people of his day did not believe was possible. A lesser man would not have succeeded in the way that he succeeded. What was it that made him great? It was the focused determination to keep the union at all costs that kept him on course to keep the country together. In addition he had the foresight to know that he had to to draw the line in the sand admit his convictions concerning slavery. He stepped up to do the job even though he had known failure in the past. He didn’t quit, but remained focused on his objectives until the end.

What Goes Around, Comes Around

Almost every religion in the world follows this line of thinking. What goes around comes around. Its the idea that there is a set of rules that we must follow. If we do something good or bad to someone else eventually, good will win out in the end.  There’s Karma, reaping what you sow, and the “law of reciprocity”. We all want there to be rules and we all want those who don’t play by the rules to get penalized.  If heaven or hell did not exist, we would invent it because we don’t see the evil being judged in the world. It also explains the desire for reincarnation. Obviously, life isn’t always fair, so perhaps the fairness comes in the after life. It is those times, however, that this “law” does seem to show up in the world that renews our faith in the idea that we “reap what we sow”.

This Day in History As it Relates to the American Revolution

Sometimes history bears this philosophy out. For instance, on this date February 10, 1763, Treaty of Paris ends French-Indian War, surrendering Canada to England. Just over 20 years later, in 1783, at another Treaty of Paris, Great Britain gave up 13 colonies which became the independent country of The United States. The French got back at England by becoming the first allies of the new Nation, The United States in 1777 and then helped the Americans defeat the British in the American Revolution. The French did not own The United States, but rather it became an ally and would remain one until this day. This alliance between France and the United States would be repaid during World War I and World War II when the United States allied with France (among others) against Germany.

Is Reciprocity Really a Law?

Of course, incidents such as this may seem to indicate the validity of the idea that “what goes around comes around”, but such is not always the case. We can look at any number of incidents where it simply is not true. A peace loving civilization is annihilated by a vicious  foe. Where is their justice? What about when a child is abused or murdered and the killer goes free? Is that fair? That is where the thoughts that there is a  judgment day coming can bring solace to someone who has been victimized. We would like to believe that someday, that person will receive payment for their horrific deeds.

Another problem comes when we try to justify our own faults. What another person does is horrible, but we when we do the same things, we find ways to rationalize our own wrongs as simply mistakes. Perhaps, we explain that there were “extenuating circumstances”.

Is there a day of reckoning coming. I hope that if there is, I pray that whatever I did wrong in this life would be dealt with mercy rather than judgment. I pray that everyone else has mercy too. I am not here to judge anyone. I am here to love.

“Blessed are the Merciful for they shall obtain Mercy.”

How to Become Successful

“Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm”-Winston Churchill

This Day in History as It Relates to the American Revolution

On this date in 1778, South Carolina was the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation. The Continental Congress had adopted the Articles of Confederation on November 17, 1777 and submitted the request to the states for immediate action. On this date (February 5) South Carolina was the first to ratify it, however, other states saw problems with it and asked for changes. On June 26, 1778, The Articles were ordered to be engrossed, but the engrossment was found to be incorrect so a second engrossed copy was ordered.

Articles of ConfederationOn July 9, 1778 second engrossed copy of the Articles was signed and ratified by the delegates from eight states: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and South Carolina.North Carolina delegates signed the ratification of the Articles of Confederation on July 21, 1778, July 24 Georgia ratified, November 26, New Jersey ratified, May 5, 1779 Delaware ratified. On March 1, 1781 Mayrland ratified making it the last of the thirteen to ratify the Articles of Confederation.

The States soon realized that problems existed in the Articles of Confederation so Congress approved a plan to hold a convention in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation.

Failure Doesn’t Have To Be Permanent

The first attempt that the United States made for creating a document to live by, The Articles of Confederation, failed to provide a government strong enough for the country. It wasn’t until the Founding Fathers got together and drafted The Constitution of the United States that it finally found the working document that would catapult the fledgling nation into the greatest country on earth.

Other great events in history did not occur without much failure. Everyone knows that Thomas Edison failed countless times before he invented a functioning light bulb. Everyone has also heard the question “What do you do when you have failed seven times?” and the answer: “Get up an eighth time.”

There are two things we learn from failing. One is that there was something that needs to be changed in order to succeed. We have the choice of either tweaking something in order to succeed or we can do as the Founding Fathers did with the Articles of Confederation and start over. The second thing we learn is whether we are going to become a failure and quit all together, or get up one more time and enthusiastically change the failure into a success. How we react to failure determines whether we remain failures or become successful. It depends upon whether we get up and make the changes necessary to obtain successful results. Quit now and guarantee failure. Make changes and perhaps next time you will succeed.

This week on Hubpages I wrote my 99th and 100th hub

Please check them out as well!

Is there anything easier to Grow Than Okra?

Growing Onions by Using Seeds, Plants, or Sets